PARAMUROBI: JURNAL PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM <p style="text-align: justify;">Paramurobi Journal is a scientific journal published by the Islamic Religious Education study program, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training, UNSIQ Central Java. The paramurobi journal publishes articles sourced from the results of field study research, literature review, theoretical studies, and research dissemination. The focus and scope of the paramurobi journal is related to the themes of Islamic religious education which include learning activities, curriculum, evaluation, management, quality of education, and information technology, in various types, pathways and levels of formal and non-formal education. Articles published biannually, January-June and July-December. P-ISSN: 2615-5680 and E-ISSN: 2657-2222.&nbsp;Based on the decree of the Ministry of Research and Technology, NOMOR 200/ M/KPT/2020 dated December 23, 2020, Jurnal Paramurobi has been accredited ranked <strong>Sinta 4.</strong></p> Program Studi Pendidikan Agama Islam Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UNSIQ Jawa Tengah en-US PARAMUROBI: JURNAL PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM 2615-5680 <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong><br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0)</a> that allows others to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format), and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the work for any purpose, even commercially with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;The Effect of Open Access).</p> THE STRATEGY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LEARNING IN THE DIGITAL ERA <p>Education Quality Strategy is an effort to improve the quality of learning in the digital era. In the digital era, technology is an important tool in the learning process, so it requires transformation in the way of teaching and learning.&nbsp; This type of research uses literature research. This article discusses efforts to transform the quality of education to improve the quality of learning in the digital era. Some of the things discussed include the development of digital curricula that are relevant to the needs and goals, training and development of human resources, the use of technology to increase student interaction and interest in learning, as well as periodic evaluation and improvement. In the digital era, education quality transformation must pay attention to aspects of data security and privacy, as well as cooperation between related parties to ensure curriculum implementation in the digital era can run well and effectively.</p> sahri sahri akhyak akhyak Nur Efendi As’aril Muhajir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 1 13 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.4638 PENGARUH KEPAMIMPINAN TRANSFORMASIONAL KEPALA SEKOLAH DAN BUDAYA ORGANISASI TERHADAP DISIPLIN KERJA GURU SD NEGERI <p>This research investigates how the leadership style of school principals, teacher commitment, and the organizational culture affect teacher discipline in Public Elementary Schools in the Banyumas District, Pringsewu Regency. The study uses a quantitative approach and includes 122 public elementary school teachers as participants. Data was collected through questionnaires, and analysis involved regression tests to assess normality, heteroskedasticity, multicollinearity, and data linearity. The findings show that both transformational leadership of the school principal and organizational culture have a positive and significant impact on teacher discipline. Moreover, when combined, these factors also positively and significantly influence teacher discipline.</p> Yuliawati Yuliawati Riswanti Rini Hasan Hariri Handoko Handoko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 14 26 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5940 DESAIN PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM PAI TERPUSAT PADA MATA PELAJARAN <p>Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis desain pengembangan kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam yang terpusat pada mata pelajaran. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif jenis metode yang digunakan yaitu studi kepustakaan (<em>library research). </em>Penelitian ini berisi rancangan desain pengembangan kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam terpusat pada mata pelajaran. Salah satu desain yang paling populer dan paling banyak diminati. Pada penerapannya, desain pengembangan kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam terpusat pada mata pelajaran sangatlah sederhana, mudah direncanakan, dilaksanakan, difahami, dan mudah pula untuk diadakan perubahan jika perlu. Desain ini juga disebut sebagai <em>separated subject curriculum</em>, karena kurikulum model ini tersusun atas sejumlah mata pelajaran dan diajarkan secara terpisah-pisah. Tujuan pembelajarannya yaitu untuk menguasai bahan dari tiap-tiap mata pelajaran yang ditentukan. Penekanannya lebih pada pengetahuan, keterampilan dan nilai-nilai masa lalu kemudian dipertahankan dan diwariskan pada generasi setelahnya. Desain ini sangatlah mudah dalam penyusunannya sehingga mudah dilakukan perubahan sewaktu-waktu untuk menyeimbangkan kemampuan peserta.</p> Herlina Arum Kusumawati Tasman Hamami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 27 43 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.4783 PENGARUH KEPAMIMPINAN VISIONER KEPALA SEKOLAH DAN KOMITMEN ORGANISASI TERHADAP KOMPETENSI PROFESIONAL GURU SMP NEGERI <p>This study employed an ex post facto quantitative approach to investigate the individual and combined effects of visionary leadership and organizational commitment of school principals on the professional competence of 144 randomly selected State Middle School teachers in Pesawaran Regency, out of a population of 225. Data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed using simple and multiple regression techniques after conducting prerequisite regression tests. The findings indicate that both the principal's visionary leadership and organizational commitment have a significant positive influence on enhancing teacher professional competence when examined individually. Moreover, when considered together, these factors collectively contribute significantly to the improvement of teacher professional competence.</p> Apri Wahyuni Hasan Hariri Riswanti Rini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 44 57 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5939 IMPLEMENTASI KURIKULUM KULLIYATUL MU’ALLIMIN AL-ISLAMIYYAH (KMI) DI PESANTREN PUTRA ULUL ALBAB KOTO BARU DHARMASRAYA <p>The article has the purpose of describing the implementation of the Kulliyatul Mu'allimin al-Islamiyyah (KMI) Curriculum at the Putra Ulul Albab Islamic Boarding School. This research was carried out at the Putren Ulul Albab Islamic boarding school located on Jl. Lintas Sumatera KM 1 Simpang 4 Koto Baru, Dharmasraya regency, West Sumatra. The method used in this study is descriptive quality. The results of this study: 1. Kulliyatul Mu'allimin Al-Islamiyyah (KMI) Curriculum Planning: in general it is the same as the Ministry of Religion planning</p> susi puspita sari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 6 2 58 69 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5824 MODEL PENGEMBANGAN MUTU PENDIDIKAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF EDWARD SALLIS <p>The education quality development model is a systematic approach designed to enhance the quality of education within a learning institution. Its primary objective is to elevate the standards and effectiveness of teaching, thereby creating a more conducive learning environment for students, educators, and other stakeholders in education. Several widely employed models aim to enhance educational quality, including Total Quality Management (TQM), Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA), Six Sigma, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and Edward Sallis. The main focus of this essay is to provide an in-depth definition and understanding of Edward Sallis and explore topics closely associated with the educational quality development model from his perspective.</p> Diah Anika Fahrani Riswandi Riswandi Riswanti Rini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 70 81 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5941 KEBIJAKAN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM DALAM MENGHADAPI ERA SOCIETY 5.0 <p><em>This article explains the progress of the times, especially in the field of technology, the change in the era of society 4.0 to 5.0 also has an impact on the world of Islamic education where all components of Islamic education must prepare themselves to face the era of society 5.0. This article was written using a descriptive qualitative approach. The type of research used is library research. This research was conducted using data collection methods from various literature such as books and journals. The author explores the existing literature and examines it in conducting research. The analytical method used is the descriptive-analytic method, namely explaining and collaborating on the main ideas on the topic of discussion, and presenting them critically through sources related to the theme. The results of the study show that the era of Society 5.0 is a concept of society that places humans and technology as the main focus, this transformation also has a significant positive impact on human life by giving a deeper meaning. Advances in information and communication technology have had a significant influence on the education sector, influencing the development of the creativity of teachers, students and academics. In this Society 5.0 era, teachers as educators need to have digital skills, the ability to think creatively, imaginatively and dynamically in learning in the classroom<strong>.</strong></em></p> Muhammad Fuadzy Al Khadziq Suwadi Suwadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 82 96 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.4876 EXTRACURRICULAR IMPLEMENTATION OF AL-AMIEN LITERATURE SANGGAR IN DEVELOPING STUDENTS' WRITING TALENT AT TMI AL-AMIEN PRENDUAN <p><em>Writing is part of the aspects of language activities that are considered difficult and complained about by the community. Various levels of education complained about the difficulty of writing. The impact of these complaints gives the opinion that writing is indeed difficult. This opinion cannot be justified by his statement, because writing activities are the same as other language activities, which are skills. Every skill can be developed with systematic and continuous practice. Therefore educational institutions form extracurricular activity programs in developing students' writing talents to produce quality successors of the nation in writing activities. This study aims to find out how the extracurricular activities of the Al-Amien Literature Studio are implemented, and what are the implications and contributions of the extracurricular activities of the Al-Amien Literature Studio in developing the writing talents of female students at TMI Al-Amien Prenduan. This research is a descriptive qualitative using observation, interview, and documentation methods which are then analyzed to obtain data or information. The subjects of this study were taken Three persons from the trainers, two people from the charge, two persons from the consultants, and six members of the Al-Amien Literature Studio. For the validity of the data researchers triangulation. This thesis concludes that the implementation of the extracurricular activities of the Al-Amien Literature Studio is carried out through three stages, namely the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages of the extracurricular activities. While the implications and contributions of the extracurricular activities of the Al-Amien Literature Studio are the use of active and creative methods, the existence of corrections or feedback activities on students' work, the efforts to improve the quality of writing, and the prevention and control of plagiarism on students' written works.</em></p> Fathorrahman Fathorrahman Ervina Zulfa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 97 112 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5332 PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP PENDIDIKAN ISLAM PADA SURAT LUQMAN AYAT 12-19 BERDASARKAN TAFSIR AL-AZHAR KARYA HAMKA <p><em>Islamic education to date has been poorly applied in social life. Various deviant behaviors of teenagers are rampant in various places. This is closely related to the system built by an Islamic family to educate family members in accordance with the guidance of Islamic teachings. Children's education in Islam aims to instill Islamic values to children in order to make servants of Allah who obey Him and His messenger. This study aims to explore the educational values contained in the Quran sourced from Al-Azhar commentary and insights that are considered relevant and useful to discuss. This study uses qualitative methodology which is a library research. The Quran is used as the primary source and the interpretation concluded by Hamka in surah Luqman with the support of secondary sources in the form of books, articles, journals, and all other supporting information. It can be concluded that there are three basics that must be a benchmark in life according to Hamka, especially for education, namely: First, Aqidah, is the basis of children's faith in the Godhead. Second, Worship, the vertical relationship of children as a manifestation of the implementation of aqidah. Third, Akhlak, children's education in behavior towards parents, society and the environment.</em></p> Hisan Mursalin Azkiyannada Azkiyannada Tatang Hidayat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 113 126 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5932 PENERAPAN NILAI-NILAI WASATHY PADA PESERTA DIDIK MELALUI LEMBAGA PENDIDIKAN <p>The application of Wasathi values in daily life is an aspiration for every individual, aiming to create a peaceful and prosperous existence. However, implementing these values is not an easy task; it requires concrete strategies and efforts. Recent practices have shown a discrepancy with Wasathi values, such as a high level of intolerance and egoism, resulting in negative views towards those with different perspectives. This can be prevented through the application of Wasathi values, especially in educational institutions. Research results indicate that the implementation of Wasathi values, particularly in the social diversity of intensive students, can be realized through various activities and programs. Intensive students come from diverse backgrounds, but through activities like Usbu’utta’aruf, student congress programs, Gebyar Iedul Adha, as well as commemorations of Pancasila Day and the Independence Day of the Republic of Indonesia, they can form good relationships and apply Wasathi values in daily life. Values such as tawassut, tawazun, adil, tasamuh, musawah, syura, islah, aulawiyah, tatawwur wal ibtikar, tahadhdhur, wathaniyah wa muwathanah, and qudwatiyah can be implemented through these activities. This proves that the application of Wasathi values in educational institutions can create a harmonious and tolerant atmosphere among students from diverse backgrounds.</p> Uswatun Hasanah Yusfar Ramadhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 6 2 127 137 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.6030 IMPLIKASI KONSEP ABDULLAH DAN KHALIFATULLAH DALAM PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER <p>This article presents the implications of Abdullah and Khalifatullah's concepts in character education. The concept of Abdullah emphasizes awareness as a servant of God in shaping the character of learners, while the concept of Khalifatullah underlines the responsibility of man as a substitute for Allah. The implications of these two concepts include the development of good morals, social and moral awareness, spiritual intelligence, and just leadership. By understanding the implications of the concepts of Abdullah and Khalifatullah, character education can produce individuals who are aware of the vertical relationship with God, have noble morals, are socially responsible, and have high environmental awareness. This effort can form a quality generation and contribute positively to society. Character education that integrates the concepts of Abdullah and Khalifatullah requires a holistic approach involving academic, moral, spiritual, and social aspects. The purpose of Islamic education based on this concept is to form a generation that is faithful, has noble character, is socially responsible, and ready to become a just leader.</p> Sri Haryanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 6 2 138 146 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.6364 EFEKTIVITAS KURIKULUM MERDEKA DALAM MENINGKATKAN MUTU PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMP TERPADU DI KABUPATEN JOMBANG <p>This article describes the effectiveness of the independent curriculum which includes the implementation of the independent curriculum, improving the quality of PAI, and the effectiveness of the independent curriculum in PAI learning. the independent curriculum is a solution provided by the ministry of education and research to develop the potential of students and improve the quality of post-pandemic education. there are four major changes in the independent curriculum, namely a flexible curriculum, focusing on essential material, using various teaching tools, and utilizing digital technology. The research is descriptive qualitative. The method of extracting data through interviews using a structured interview instrument guide. Data analysis through data reduction by clarifying and sharpening research results, presenting data in descriptive form, and verifying data or drawing conclusions from interviews, observations, and literature review results. The research results show: The effectiveness of the independent curriculum in Islamic Religious Education subjects does not yet have an effective final increase because it is still in the process of adjustment. But every semester has improved well, both in terms of the learning process or in terms of practicum in the form of projects.</p> MOHAMMAD KHOIRUL ABIDIN Muh. Wasith Achadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 151 163 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5860 ANALISIS PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN SAINTIFIK DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PAI DI SMA SEKECAMATAN TALIWANG KABUPATEN SUMBAWA BARAT <p><em>The K-13 curriculum has been implemented since 2013, and the government has adopted a scientific approach to achieve the desired outcomes of the curriculum. However, after ten years of implementing this scientific approach, the learning process and outcomes, including in PAI (Islamic Education), have not shown the expected results. This research aims to: (1) analyze the implementation of the scientific approach in PAI learning in high schools in the Taliwang District, and (2) analyze the supporting factors and barriers to the implementation of the scientific approach in PAI learning in high schools in the Taliwang District. This study is a qualitative research using a narrative inquiry approach. The research was conducted at SMAN 01, SMAN 02, and SMKN 01 Taliwang, with the research subjects being the school principals, PAI teachers, and students. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation using observation sheets, interview guides, and documentation guidelines as instruments. The data were analyzed through data display, data reduction, and verification stages. The results of the study indicate that: (1) the implementation of the scientific approach in PAI learning in high schools in the Taliwang District is carried out in various ways, depending on the availability of media, learning resources, and the creativity of PAI teachers, and (2) the implementation of the scientific approach in PAI learning in SMAN 01, SMAN 02, and SMKN 01 Taliwang is supported by: K-13 training, a good understanding of the scientific approach, lesson plan preparation by PAI teachers, availability of media, learning resources, and the creativity of PAI teachers. However, the implementation of the scientific approach is hindered by factors such as the limited number of PAI class hours, which is only two hours per week, and the lack of enthusiasm among students. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dzurriyun Toyibi Suhirman Suhirman Alkusaeri Alkusaeri Yudhi Setiawan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 164 182 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5997 PENERAPAN HERMENEUTIK DHEMITOLOGI RUDOLF BULTMANN PADA RANAH PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM <p>This research discusses Bultmann's theological hermeneutics, namely Dhemitology, a philosophical theory that examines issues in the Holy Scriptures which are sacred in the form of myths and are still a mystery to be proven by exploring their original and hidden meanings. This theory aims to interpret the ideas, motifs and stories in revelation so that they become clear and transparent and still remain within the limits of an approach that focuses on the objectification of language. This research uses the library research method (library study). In the form of a series of activities related to data collection methods from library books. The resulting analysis is that the order of worship in Islam is not just a mere Shari'a, but after a thorough study of its meaning, it is found that there are many benefits contained in it, as well as scientific rationale.</p> Muhammad Saefullah Siti Lailiyah Ali Imron ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 183 197 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.6078 IMPLEMENTASI PENDIDIKAN ISLAM MULTIKULTURAL SEBAGAI UPAYA MENGATASI BIAS GENDER-BUDAYA DI DUNIA PENDIDIKAN <p><em>This research aims to describe the phenomenon of gender and cultural bias that often occurs in the school environment and the application of ecological theory and multicultural Islamic education as a solution to overcome it. This research uses a type of library research by collecting and analyzing texts or documents that are relevant to the discussion that will be reviewed. Gender refers to the roles of men and women in society, while culture is a pattern of behavior and behavior that is passed from one generation to the next. Currently, there are many cultural and gender inequalities found in the school environment, both in the cultural treatment of teachers towards students who have different backgrounds and in lesson modules that marginalize the role of women. The results of the study show that the concpet of multicultural islamic education can be used by an educator in understanding cultural diversity and gender differences that occur in the world of education so that the learning process can go according to plan as well as puts understanding on students to accept and appreciate different values from different people, tribes, and cultures according to the context in the Qur'an and Sunnah.</em></p> Yudhi Setiawan Hulaefi Hulaefi Musari Musari Mira Mareta Syarifah Aulia Rabbani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 198 214 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.6060 MODEL OF PUBLIC RELATIONS MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT WITH ISLAMIC EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ACCORDING TO THE MERDEKA LEARNING PERSPECTIVES <p><em>This study attempts to analyze the model developed by public relations with Islamic educational institutions as the former Pekalongan Residency according to the perspective of Merdeka Learning by making Madrasah Aliyah as the object of research. This study is intended to find a model of public relations management with Islamic educational institutions at the MA level in the Merdeka Learning perspective that was developed, the strategies used in the development model of public relations management with Isla mic educational institutions in the Merdeka Learning perspective at the MA level, and the impact of the community relations development model on madrasas. The location of this research is Madrasah Aliyah, the former Pekalongan Residency, Central Java. The primary data of this research is a model of public relations development with Islamic educational institutions in Madrasah Aliyah. At the same time, the secondary data is the theoretical basis obtained through a literature review. This research is qualitative research with the type of field research. In comparison, the data collection techniques used interviews, observation, and documentation (triangulation) equipped with audio and visual. The data were analyzed using the descriptive-analytic method. The results showed that the model of developing public relations management with Islamic educational institutions at the MA level was two-way symmetrical, two-way asymmetrical, and general information. While the strategy used is more based on the use of media. One of the impacts of the public relations management development model is the increase in the quality of the madrasa.</em></p> Slamet Untung Ade Dedi Rohayana M. Miftah Farid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 215 228 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5579 PENINGKATAN PEMAHAMAN FIQIH MELALUI METODE SAINTIFIK DI SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA (SMP) TAHFIDZ AL-AMIEN PRENDUAN SUMENEP <p>The scientific approach makes learning more active and not boring, students can construct their knowledge and skills through facts found in field investigations for learning. In addition, with learning based on this scientific approach, students are encouraged to be more capable in observing, asking, reasoning, and learning and obtained by students carried out with their own senses and minds, so that they are directly in the process of gaining knowledge. The approach in this study uses a qualitative approach, while the type of researcher used in the study is descriptive. The data sources in this study consist of primary data, namely principals, teachers, students. While secondary data is in the form of documents in SMP Tahfid Putra Al-Amien Prenduan Sumenep Madura. Data collection techniques include interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis techniques with single case design techniques introduced by Miles and Hiberman are carried out starting from the process of data collection, presentation and verification. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the application of the scientific approach in fiqh learning with the observing stage, where in class the teacher provides lessons that must be observed and understood by students. The questioning stage, the teacher provides a trigger for students' critical thinking. Exploring, students learn to obtain real learning outcomes with experiments. Associating, students carry out a logical thinking process on empirical facts that can be observed to obtain conclusions. Finally communicating, where teachers are expected to provide ample opportunities for students to communicate. While the impact is that students are active in performing mandatory prayers and know the legal basis for mandatory prayers, students are active in reading and interpreting naqli arguments about mandatory prayers, active students in mentioning the conditions of prayer, active students in mentioning the pillars of prayer.</p> Muhammad Nurul Yaqin Rendiansyah Rendiansyah Andri Sutrisno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 229 244 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.6021 IMPLEMENTATION COMMUNITY BASED EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION OF ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL IN WONOGIRI <p><em>Community Based Education is education that is organized based on social characteristics, religion, culture, community potential, and community aspirations as the embodiment of education from, by, and for the community. Islamic boarding schools as the embodiment of community based education. This research is a qualitative case study that takes 3 locations to provide a complete picture of the concept, strategy, and SWOT analysis. Research objects at Gani Tirtoasri Islamic Boarding School, Sunan Gunung Jati Islamic Boarding School and Al Ibanah Islamic Boarding School. The concept that exists in pesantren can be seen in its management which includes planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling. While the strategy used is the marketing mix strategy. And for SWOT analysis there are several strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats as a basis for the development of education in Islamic boarding schools</em></p> Eka Yuni Purwanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 6 2 245 262 10.32699/paramurobi.v6i2.5995